What Is Robotic Surgery?

robotic surgery ppt

While you are under anesthesia, your surgeon will make small incisions to insert a tube containing a camera and miniature robotic tools controlled from a nearby console. Your doctor then controls this robotic system from his own console nearby.

Studies have demonstrated that robotic surgery offers improved surgical outcomes without increasing operating time, blood loss or intra/post operative complications compared to laparoscopy. Benefits of robotic surgery include improved dexterity and fine motion capabilities as well as tremor filtering and surgical ergonomics.

Benefits

Robotic surgery allows your surgeon to treat cancer or another medical condition with less-invasive techniques, and may speed up recovery times. Your physician will make small incisions in your body and insert miniaturized surgical instruments and a high-definition camera into mini incisions in your abdomen; from there the robot is controlled from a console nearby by the surgeon who controls its movements from within an enclosure nearby. Although robotic surgery is typically faster and more precise than open surgery procedures, it may not be right for everyone; so be sure to discuss this option with your healthcare provider beforehand.

Da Vinci system (Intuitive Surgical, California, USA), first approved by the FDA in 2000, is widely known and revered among surgical robotic systems. This device features four robotic arms containing surgical tools and cameras and controlled by two consoles: one contains the master controller which offers 3D views of surgical field; while the other holds slave controller.

Surgical robotics technology is rapidly progressing. New systems are entering the market or being researched as research prototypes. Some of the main benefits that robotically assisted systems offer include:

Surgical robots enable surgeons to perform more complex operations with greater precision, speed and safety due to their smaller size and lack of direct patient contact. Furthermore, it reduces risks such as infection or complications post surgery and provides doctors with a clearer view of problems and access sites more quickly than traditional open surgery techniques.

A surgical robot increases operating room efficiency by providing surgeons with access to tight spaces. Furthermore, this robot provides a clearer view of surgical sites thanks to a camera and monitor attached to its endoscopic arm; this assists with diagnosing conditions as well as determining whether surgery is required.

Surgical robots can be utilized across a wide array of medical disciplines, from neurosurgery and orthopedics, gynecology and colorectal surgery, gastroenterology and colorectal surgery, and even urology and gynecology procedures where scar tissue formation occurs to reduce pain, bleeding and infection risk. Most frequently they’re utilized during urologic and gynecological surgeries where scarring reduction reduces pain, bleeding and risk of infection significantly.

Risks

Robotic surgery is cutting-edge technology that offers surgeons greater precision and dexterity for surgery that may not be possible using laparoscopic methods alone. However, robotic surgery poses certain risks; patients who undergo robotic surgery should be informed about them so they can make an informed decision regarding their procedure.

Studies published by JAMA Surgery demonstrated that patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery experienced more complications than traditional operations due to its complex nature and limited research that compares outcomes of robotic-assisted versus traditional procedures. Researchers attribute this phenomenon to factors including complexity of procedures and lack of comparative randomized studies that compare outcomes of robotic surgery vs traditional techniques.

As with any system, robotic surgery systems have limitations that may lead to complications. They require an ideal body position for proper operation – leading to potential bruising and nerve damage – and cannot compensate for movements made by patients on an operating table, leading to unintended instrument operations or loss of control over them. Over a 14 year period, FDA received over 8,000 reports of malfunctions with robotic surgery systems; 14.7 percent involved burnt or broken pieces falling into patients’ bodies while other incidents included electrical arcing or system errors.

As with any form of surgery, robotic procedures carry some inherent risks; one such risk involves the use of cameras that only provide two-dimensional vision. This limited view may cause complications during operations that include injury to nearby structures or inaccurate positioning of robotic arms during surgery. Furthermore, robot cameras may obscure surgeon views, leading them to make unnecessary incisions as a result.

Surgical robotics is rapidly developing with new technology and increased competition. Established companies as well as smaller start-ups have introduced novel systems that aim to challenge Intuitive Surgical’s 20-year dominance with its da Vinci system; such systems utilize single port operating to provide haptic feedback or machine learning/artificial intelligence capabilities.

Even with all its advantages, robotic surgery should never replace human surgeons in an operating room. Highly-skilled surgeon technicians would be difficult to replace; furthermore, the complexity of robotic surgery will likely not decrease enough for human operators(s) not be needed in a human-controlled procedure.

Procedures

Robot-assisted surgery (robotic or robotic-assisted surgery), also known as robot-assisted surgery (RAS), allows surgeons to conduct complex surgeries through small incisions. While it is most often employed in minimally invasive processes, robotic surgery can be utilized during traditional open surgeries as well. For robotic surgery procedures, your doctor inserts small mechanical palms containing surgical instruments through small one to two centimeter-long incisions on your body; then controls these palms remotely via console close to the operating table using remote computer control console or another nearby computer connected by cables – giving your surgeon greater dexterity and range of motion than human hands for effortless reaching hard-to-reach areas of your body with ease.

Over fifty years ago, the first multipurpose robotic system received US Food and Drug Administration approval; today, Intuitive Surgical’s da Vinci system is widely utilized and standard equipment in operating rooms across the nation.

Early robotic systems were often narrowly-focused, such as Hap Paul and William Bargar’s orthopedic image-guided robot for prosthetic hip replacement. But in the 1990s, Computer Motion and Intuitive Surgical began producing multipurpose surgical robots which proved far more efficient than earlier models; since then, robotic surgery has spread far beyond its initial uses to include neurosurgery, orthopedics, microsurgery, image-guided surgery, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery as well as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic endoscopic endoscopic endoscopic endoscopic endoscopic surgeries among others.

Surgical robots provide greater dexterity and range of motion, as well as providing enhanced visualization and precision. Furthermore, these robotic tools help reduce complications while speeding recovery times for an overall improved patient experience.

As patents expire on existing systems, new companies are entering the robotic technology market. While some firms focus on improving upon original technology, others develop systems suitable for novel procedures like telerobotics. Telerobotic procedures offer patients who may otherwise lack access to robotic surgery access its benefits more readily such as those living in remote locations.

Recovery

Many patients feel nervous and concerned about having surgery and its recovery time, however with robotic surgery the hospital stays and recovery times tend to be shorter, and patients can resume normal activities more quickly than with traditional open or laparoscopic procedures.

“Robotic surgery has really come into its own in recent years,” according to ChristianaCare urologist Gerard Fulda, M.D. Of these ChristianaCare surgeons are certified users of Da Vinci surgery systems, offering greater precision and control during procedures such as gynecologic oncology, colorectal surgery, general surgery thoracic and urology surgeries.

Robotic procedures involve small incisions made in your body for surgeons to insert miniaturized instruments and high-definition three-dimensional cameras – sometimes even without leaving visible marks on the skin – along with miniaturized instruments controlled from a console a few feet away which displays 3-D images of your insides.

“Robotic surgery is without question the future of surgery,” Dr. Santoro states emphatically.

Though robot surgery might appear complicated, it is actually much simpler than conventional techniques. While major open surgery requires large incisions into the abdomen and can take a considerable time for recovery, laparoscopic surgery uses smaller incisions but lacks wristed tools required by robotic surgery.

Study results comparing robotic and open surgery for bladder cancer revealed that patients undergoing robotic cystectomy spent eight days in hospital as opposed to 10 for those undergoing open surgery, with 21 percent lower rates of readmission within 90 days post-procedure for robotic patients.

Researchers are investigating whether robotic surgery can enhance quality of life for women undergoing gynecologic oncology procedures. Over 400 women will participate, having robotic surgery for conditions including endometriosis, cervical cancer or pelvic organ prolapse (when bladder or other pelvic organs slip through vagina). Participants will complete validated quality-of-life measures preoperatively (baseline), 6 weeks postoperatively (6 weeks), 4 months postoperatively (4 months) as part of this research project; such as mental functioning measures like mental functioning, symptom severity/interference/sexual function satisfaction with decision to have robotic surgery.

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